Agricultural Sciences

A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep by Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E

By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E

CD contains pupil versions of the OASYS software program programs 'FREW' and 'Safe'.

summary:

makes a speciality of the 3 significant geotechnical demanding situations of static soil-structure interplay difficulties: Deep foundations - piles, barrettes, Multi-propped deep excavations, and Bored and open face tunnels Read more...

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Example text

This cycle is called the ‘rock cycle’ and is illustrated schematically in Fig. 13. Igneous rocks Since igneous rocks would have been the first rocks to be formed on Earth, they can be regarded as the ‘parents’ of other rocks. Igneous rocks begin as molten material often emanating from deep in the Earth’s crust. This molten rock is called ‘magma’ when within the Earth’s crust but called lava when it reaches the ground surface. As the molten rock cools and solidifies, crystals form and these crystals are the minerals that will make up the final rock.

2 Magma intrusions and extrusions forming batholiths, sills, dykes, lava and pyroclastic deposits. From Understanding Earth 2nd edition, Frank Press and Raymond Siever. # 1998, 1994 by W. H. Freeman and Company. Used with permission So how do igneous rocks differ from one another? This can be summarised as follows: By grain size and texture: . Rate of cooling controls grain size . Slow cooling gives coarse-grained rocks . Rapid cooling gives fine-grained and glassy rocks. By mineral and chemical content: .

Igneous rocks Since igneous rocks would have been the first rocks to be formed on Earth, they can be regarded as the ‘parents’ of other rocks. Igneous rocks begin as molten material often emanating from deep in the Earth’s crust. This molten rock is called ‘magma’ when within the Earth’s crust but called lava when it reaches the ground surface. As the molten rock cools and solidifies, crystals form and these crystals are the minerals that will make up the final rock. Looking at a thin section of rock reveals these minerals represented by different colours (Fig.

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