Acute toxicology

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G. The sex of the test animals can also alter study results, as both regional skin thickness and surface blood flow vary between males and females. H. Finally, the single most important (yet also most frequently overlooked) factor which influences the results and outcome of these (and, in fact, most) acute studies is the training of the staff. In determining how test materials are prepared and applied and in how results are "read" against a subjective scale, both accuracy and precision are extremely dependent on the technicians involved.

And Guy, R. H. (1986). Approaches to the prediction of dermal absorption and potential cutaneous toxicity. In Alternative Methods in Toxicology (A. M. ), Vol. 3, pp. 56-536. Liebert, New York. Gad, S. , and Chengelis, C. P. (1988). Acute Toxicity: Principles and Methods. Telfor Press, Caldwell, NJ. Gad, S. , Dunn, B. , Dobbs, D. , and Walsh, R. D. (1986a). Development and validation of an alternative dermal sensitization test: The mouse ear swelling test (MEST). Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 84, 93-114.

Cosmet. Toxicol. 16, 255-276. Gad, S. , and Weil, C. S. (1988). Statistics and Experimental Design for Toxicologists, 2nd ed. Telford Press, Caldwell, NJ. J. (1981). Scientific Considerations in Monitoring and Evaluating Toxicological Research. Hemisphere, New York. Larson, D. , King, T. , Nelson, R. , and Gad, S. C. (1995). Information sources: Building and maintaining data files. In Safety Assessment for Pharmaceuticals (S. C. ). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Lu, F. C. (1985). Basic Toxicology, pp.

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