Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar by Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau

By Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau

The ebook specializes in complex characterization tools for thin-film sun cells that experience confirmed their relevance either for educational and company photovoltaic study and improvement. After an advent to thin-film photovoltaics, hugely skilled specialists document on equipment and fabrics characterization equipment equivalent to electroluminescence research, capacitance spectroscopy, and diverse microscopy tools. within the ultimate a part of the e-book simulation suggestions are provided that are used for ab-initio calculations of correct semiconductors and for machine simulations in 1D, 2nd and 3D.

Building on a confirmed suggestion, this re-creation additionally covers thermography, temporary optoelectronic equipment, and absorption and photocurrent spectroscopy.

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Berlin, Germany; London, UK; and Jülich, Germany August 2010 Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, and Uwe Rau XXXI XXXIII Abbreviations 1D 2D 3D A∘ X ac ADC ADF ADXRD AES AEY AFM AFORS-HET ALDA AM AM AMU ARS AS ASA ASCII a-Si A-X BACE BF BOP BS BSE BSE c-AFM CBD CBED CBM CBO CC CCD CE One-dimensional Two-dimensional Three-dimensional Excitons bound to neutral acceptor Amplified current Analog-to-digital converter Annular dark field Angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Auger electron yield Atomic force microscopy Automat for simulation of heterostructures Adiabatic local density approximation Amplitude modulation Air mass Atomic mass units Angularly resolved light scattering Admittance spectroscopy Advanced semiconductor analysis, a solar-cell device simulator American Standard Code for Information Interchange Amorphous silicon Excitons bound to ionized acceptor Bias-amplified charge extraction Bright field Bond-order potential Beam splitter Bethe–Salpeter equation Backscattered electrons Conductive AFM Chemical bath deposition Convergent-beam electron diffraction Conduction-band minimum Conduction-band offset Coupled cluster Charge-coupled device Charge extraction XXXIV Abbreviations CELIV CGI CHA CI CIGS CIGSe CIGSSe CIS CIS CISe CL CL CMA CN CP CPD CSL CSS CTEM CV cw D∘ h D∘ X DAP db, DB dc DF DFPT DFT DFT DLCP DLOS DLTS DOS DSR DT D-X eA∘ EBIC EBSD EDMR EDX EDXRD EELS EFTEM EL ELNES EMPA ENDOR EPR ESCA Charge extraction with linearly increased voltage [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) Concentric hemispherical analyzer Configuration interaction Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Cu(In,Ga)(S;Se)2 CuInSe2 CuInS2 CuInSe2 Cathodoluminescence Core level Cylindrical mirror analyzer Charge neutrality Critical point Contact-potential difference Coincidence-site lattice Closed-space sublimation Conventional transmission electron microscopy Capacitance–voltage Continuous wave Optical transitions between donor and free hole Excitons bound to neutral donor Donor–acceptor pair Dangling bond Direct current Dark field Density functional perturbation theory Density functional theory Discrete Fourier transform Drive-level capacitance profiling Deep-level optical spectroscopy Deep-level transient spectroscopy Density of states Differential spectral response Digital Excitons bound to ionized donor Optical transitions between acceptor and free electron Electron-beam-induced current Electron backscatter diffraction Electrically detected magnetic resonance Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction Electron energy-loss spectrometry Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy Electroluminescence Energy-loss near-edge structure Eidgenössische Materialprüfungsanstalt Electron nuclear double resonance Electron paramagnetic resonance Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis Abbreviations ESEEM ESI ESR EXC EXELFS FFT FIB FIR FM FP-LAPW FT FTIR FTPS FWHM FX FY GB GD-MS GD-OES GGA GGI GIXRD GNU GPL GW HAADF HFI HOPG HR HR HRTEM HT HWCVD HZB IBB IPES IR JEBIC KPFM KS KSM LAMMPS LBIC LCR meter LDA LED LESR LIA LLS LO LR Electron spin echo envelope modulations Energy-selective imaging Electron spin resonance Free exciton transition Extended energy-loss fine structure Fast Fourier transformation Focused ion beam Far infrared Frequency modulation Full potential linearized augmented plane wave Fourier transform Fourier transform infrared Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy Full width at half maximum Free excitons Fluorescence yield Grain boundary Glow-discharge mass spectroscopy Glow-discharge optical-emission spectroscopy Generalized gradient approximation [Ga]/([In]+[Ga]) Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction GNU’s Not Unix (recursive acronym) General public licence G for Green’s function and W for the screened Coulomb interaction High-angle annular dark field Hyperfine interaction Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite High resistance High resolution High-resolution transmission electron microscopy High temperature Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin Interface-induced band bending Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy Infrared Junction electron-beam-induced current Kelvin probe force microscopy Kohn–Sham Kaplan–Solomon–Mott (model) Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator Laser-beam-induced current Inductance, capacitance, and resistance analyzer Local density approximation Light-emitting diode Light-induced ESR Lock-in amplifier Laser-light scattering Longitudinal optical Low resistance XXXV XXXVI Abbreviations LT LVM MBPT MD MIP MIR MIS ML MO MOS MS MSE mw nc-AFM NIR NIST NSOM OBIC OES OTRACE OVC PBE-GGA PC PCSA PDA PDE PDS PECVD PES pESR PEY PIPO PL PLL PMT pp PV PVD QE QMA QMC RDLTS REBIC rf RGB RHEED RIXS RS RSF RTP RTSE Low temperature Localized vibrational modes Many-body perturbation theory Molecular dynamics Mean-inner potential Medium infrared Metal–insulator–semiconductor Monolayer Metal oxide Metal–oxide–semiconductor Molecular statics Mean-square error Microwave Non-contact atomic force microscopy Near-infrared National Institute of Standards and Technology Near-field scanning optical microscopy Optical-beam-induced current Optical emission spectrometry Open circuit corrected transient charge extraction Ordered vacancy compound Generalized gradient approximation by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof Personal computer Polarizer–compensator–sample–analyzer Photodetector array Partial differential equations Photothermal deflection spectroscopy Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Photoelectron spectroscopy Pulsed electron spin resonance Partial electron yield Photon-in photon-out Photoluminescence Phase-locked loop Photomultiplier tube Peak-to-peak Photovoltaic Physical vapor deposition Quantum efficiency Quadrupole mass analyzer Quantum Monte Carlo Reverse-bias deep-level transient spectroscopy Remote electron-beam-induced current Radio frequency Red–green–blue, color space Reflection high-energy electrons Resonant inelastic (soft) X-ray scattering Raman spectroscopy Relative sensitivity factor Rapid thermal process Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry Abbreviations RZW S/N SAED SCAPS SCM SE SE SEM SIMS SNMS SNOM, see also NSOM SPICE SPM SQ SR SSPG SSRM STEM STM SWE TCO TD TD-DFT TDCF TDS TEM TEY TF TO TOF TPC TPD TPV TU UHV UPS UV VBM VBO Vis, VIS WDX WLR XAES XAS XES XPS XRD XRF ZFF μc-Si Ritter, Zeldov, and Weiser steady-state photocarrier method Signal-to-noise (ratio) Selected-area electron diffraction Solar-cell capacitance simulator Scanning capacitance microscopy Spectroscopic ellipsometry Secondary electron Scanning electron microscopy Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy Sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy Scanning near-field optical microscopy Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis Scanning probe microscopy Shockley–Queisser (limit) Spectral response Steady-state photocarrier grating Scanning spreading-resistance microscopy Scanning transmission electron microscopy Scanning tunneling microscopy Staebler–Wronski effect Transparent conductive oxide Trigger diode Time-dependent density functional theory Time-delayed collection field Thermal desorption spectroscopy Transmission electron microscopy Total electron yield Tuning fork Transversal optical Time of flight Transient photocapacitance spectroscopy Temperature-programmed desorption Transient photovoltage Technical University Ultrahigh vacuum Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy Ultraviolet Valence-band maximum Valence-band offset Visible Wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry White-light reflectometry X-ray Auger electron spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy X-ray emission spectroscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray diffraction X-ray fluorescence Zero filling factor Microcrystalline silicon XXXVII 1 Part I Introduction Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells, Second Edition.

Martí i Franquès 1 08028 Barcelona Spain and IREC – Catalonia Institute for Energy Research C Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 08930 Sant Adria del Besos Barcelona Spain Bart E. Pieters Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK-5) Photovoltaik 52428 Jülich Germany List of Contributors Paul Pistor Uwe Rau IREC – Catalonia Institute for Energy Research Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs Barcelona Spain Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK-5) Photovoltaik 52428 Jülich Germany and Angus A.

This material family is a particular type of perovskites, comprising an organic molecule, a metal, and a halogen on different lattice positions. In spite of their already high conversion efficiencies of more than 20%, solar cells based on perovskite absorbers face numerous challenges such as stability and toxicity of the materials. The rise of metal-halide perovskites has also led to expansions of traditionally rather well-separated communities of inorganic and organic solar cells. There used to be a distinct separation between researchers working on solution-processible solar cells such as those made from organic or nanoparticular absorber materials and researchers working on vacuum-deposited thin-film materials such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 , CdTe, and thin-film silicon.

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