Geology

Advances in Porous Media, Vol. 3 by M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

This ebook is the 3rd quantity of a sequence: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our goal is to provide in-depth assessment papers that provide complete insurance to the sector of shipping in porous media. This sequence treats delivery phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. hence, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of ideas and functions in a single zone to others, slicing throughout conventional limitations. the target of every bankruptcy is to study the paintings performed on a particular subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental reviews. The participants of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from quite a few backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are aimed toward all scientists and engineers in a variety of different fields desirous about the basics and purposes of techniques in porous media.

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The interdependence of some strains of bacteria that carry out biodegradation reactions is important for biodegradation modeling, particularly when conditions are anaerobic. Under anaerobic conditions, microorganisms utilize alternate electron acceptors in an order of those yielding the most energy from redox reactions to those yielding the least. , 1988; Freeze and Cherry, 1979). As the contaminant plume travels, different electron acceptors and redox conditions may prevail downstream from the initial point, and each particular environment may tend to favor the transformations of different constituents of the NAPL plume (Bouwer and McCarty, 1984).

These points must be considered when modeling NAPL biodegradation. 5. pH Bacteria live in subsurface environments under a wide pH range. Bacteria have been reported in environments ranging from < 3 to >10 pH (Chapelle, 1993). However, bacteria living in these pH extremes are usually adapted to the environment. Most bacteria prefer a pH in the neutral range (Chapelle, 1993). Natural waters tend to buffer the pH so that it remains around neutral. However, the pH in contaminated environments can be drastically altered by contaminants (Chapelle, 1993).

Whether microorganisms are attached as continuous and potentially thick biofilms or as microcolonies has important implications for biodegradation modeling. 11. 13) and biodegradation rates. If many bacteria are free-floating, then they may be more easily transported than attached bacteria. For attached bacteria, the location of attachment could have important effects on biodegradation rates. If most bacteria are attached at pore throats, then they would have greater accessibility to substrates and nutrients flowing through the aquifer than bacteria attached at the walls of pore cavities.

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