By Marjorie A. Hoy
Content material: advent to Acarology common advent to Acarology chosen References chosen web content correct to Acarology the connection of Mites to different Arthropods features of the Arthropoda greater class of Mites chosen References uncomplicated constitution and serve as of Mites Morphology Feeding and nutrients kinds Excretion Water stability Muscle procedure breathing The frightened and Sensory platforms The Circulatory process Lifecycles Diapause Dispersal copy Genetics and intercourse selection chosen References assortment, id and Culturing of Mites assortment objectives amassing Plant-Feeding or Predatory Mites tracking Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks id of Mites Culturing Mites extra Acarological details chosen References built-in Mite administration process and strategies the tactic of built-in Mite administration historic assessment Classical, Augmentative, and Conservation organic keep watch over Quarantines Cultural Controls Genetic keep an eye on Chemical regulate Pesticide Resistance Host-Plant Resistance Sampling and tracking equipment Crop Pest regulate experts and built-in Pest administration chosen References Pest Mites and Their average Enemies on vegetation Tetranychidae: ideal Plant Pests Systematics. Biology position of Silk Dispersal inhabitants Dynamics Tetranychid Anatomy chosen Species of Plant Pests by way of Genus Tetranychidae and Plant ailments Tetranychidae as Weed keep an eye on brokers Host-Plant Resistance to Tetranychidae Resistance to Host-Plant Resistance Pesticide Resistance in Tetranychids chosen References The Tarsonemidae Biology of the Plant-Feeding Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus (or Phytonemus) pallidus Polyphagotarsonemus (or Hemitarsonemus) latus keep an eye on different Pest Species of Tarsonemids chosen References The Eriophyoidea: the great, the undesirable, and the Unknown uncomplicated Biology Vectors of affliction: certainly bad chosen Eriophyoid Pests gathering and Sampling Eriophyoids Eriophyoids as replacement Prey: almost certainly stable. Invasive Eriophyoid Species: essentially undesirable organic regulate of Weeds by means of Eriophyoid Mites: almost certainly stable identity of Eriophyoids keep an eye on of Eriophyoids chosen References The Tenuipalpidae (Flat or fake Spider Mites) as Pests Biology a few Tenuipalpid Pests worldwide. Transmission of Plant illnesses keep an eye on of Tenuipalpids chosen References The Penthaleidae Systematics and Distribution Red-Legged Earth Mite (RLEM) Blue Oat Mite (Penthaleus species) chosen References buddies or Foes? The Anystidae: associates of restricted price. The Hypoaspidae: buddies, specifically for Augmentative Releases. The Tuckerellidae: strength Pests hardly chanced on other than in Tropical and Subtropical Climates The Tydeidae: ordinarily neighbors as Predators, replacement Prey, and Sanitizing brokers The Acaridae: frequently Foes yet sometimes valuable? The Hemisarcoptidae: associates Requiring extra research The Stigmaeidae: associates, in particular in Unsprayed Orchards and Vineyards. The Oribatida (Cryptostigmata): frequently valuable within the Soil yet can cause Crop Root harm and Contaminate meals chosen References The Phytoseiidae: powerful typical Enemies basic Biology Phytoseiid Systematics Phytoseiids in Augmentative organic keep watch over courses Life-Table Analyses of Phytoseiids Prey-Location habit Dispersal Plant-Emitted Volatiles and organic keep watch over. Pesticide Resistances in Phytoseiids Genetic development of Phytoseiids Rearing tools for Spider Mites and Phytoseiids chosen References Predatory bugs and Plant-Feeding Mites bugs as Predators of Plant-Feeding Mites: execs and Cons relatives Coccinellidae (Order Coleoptera): Stethorus Are Mite experts kin Staphylinidae (Order Coleoptera): Oligota Species could be beneficial Predators of Spider Mites Order Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae, Asolothripidae, Thripidae): Thrips might be Generalists or experts (Six-Spotted Thrips) Heteroptera (Hemiptera: real Bugs): Generalist Predators of Small Arthropods, together with Mites. Cecidomyiidae (Order Diptera): Feltiella Species might be powerful Predators of Spider Mites Order Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, Coniopterigidae, Hemerobiidae): Generalist Predators which could occasionally Feed on Mites Ants as Predators of T. urticae Spiders as Predators of Mites and Ticks: much less good Studied chosen References Pathogens and Symbionts of Mites and Ticks Microbial Symbionts and Pathogens Viruses of Mites and Ticks Fungal Pathogens Microsporidial Pathogens. Commercialization of Microbial insecticides. chosen References Exemplars of built-in Mite administration courses for Plant-Feeding Mites Classical organic keep an eye on of the Cassava eco-friendly Mite in Africa Steps in a Classical organic keep watch over software Cassava eco-friendly Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa. keep watch over Measures tried possibility evaluate for Classical organic keep watch over Taxonomic difficulties Why now not Use African Phytoseiids as common Enemies? application expenditures and advantages chosen References built-in Mite administration in Washington Apple Orchards The Apple surroundings. Mites on Apples IMM from the Nineteen Sixties to the Early Nineties issues of IMM within the Nineteen Nineties present and destiny alterations to IMM in Washington Apple Orchards. chosen References built-in Mite administration in California Almonds Almonds in California Pest Mites in California Almond Orchards. learn on keep watch over strategies mixed strategies of the IMM software up-to-date Almond Pest administration software chosen References built-in Mite administration in Citrus in Florida and California Citrus creation in Florida and California range in California Climates and Mite Species. coping with Mites in Florida Citrus Groves learn wishes chosen References coping with Mites on decorative vegetation different types of decorative vegetation. strategies for handling Pests of Ornamentals Mites on decorative crops Predatory Mite unlock equipment in Greenhouses the way forward for Pest administration in Greenhouse Ornamentals chosen References Soil Mites and Agriculture Pest Mites of Honey Bees Varroa jacobsoni Biology and Taxonomy tracking for Varroa regulate of Varroa built-in Varroa administration. chosen References Tracheal Mite (Acarapis woodi) Biology built-in keep watch over of Acarapis woodi chosen References Parasitic Mites of Mammals and Birds Ticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae) Ticks as Pests Biology of the Ixodidae Genera of the Ixodidae Biology of the Argasidae Pest administration of Ticks chosen References Pest Mites of Farm and significant other Animals bird crimson Mite or Roost Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae) eu or Northern bird Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae). Tropical poultry Mite, Ornithonyssus bursa (Macronyssidae) Chiggers (Actinedida: Trombiculidae) Follicle Mites, Demodex (Actinedida: Demodicidae). Straw- or Hay-Itch Mites, Pyemotes (Actinedida: Pyemotidae) Fur Mites, Cheyletiella (Actinedida: Cheyletiellidae) Acaridid Mites as Parasites or Scavengers Endoparasites of farm animals chosen References Pest Mites of kept items and families Post-Harvest Pest Mites Acarine Pests of saved meals regulate of Mites in saved Grains and different meals saved Bulb Mites and Their keep watch over chosen References airborne dirt and dust Mites (Pyroglyphidae) the significance of dirt Mites Species of airborne dirt and dust Mites. Biology of airborne dirt and dust Mites built-in administration of dirt Mites and Their Allergens chosen References a few basic Conclusions approximately built-in Mite administration word list Index
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The photographs provided in the text in Part III of this volume, or the supplementary illustrations on the CD, will help you to recognize families of plant-feeding mites (Tetranychidae, Eriophyoidea, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae) as well as some beneficial species (Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae) using a hand lens or a dissecting microscope. You will also learn to recognize two mite species that attack honey bees (see Chapters 20 and 21) (Needham et al. 1988). , Meyer 1981, University of California 2010).
4 on water balance. European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) females deposit summer eggs and winter (diapausing) eggs in different locations (Lees 1953, Cranham 1973). Diapausing eggs are laid on twigs of deciduous trees, and the summer eggs are laid on foliage. Individuals (eggs or adults) in a hibernal diapause typically have to experience a period of cold chill before the diapause is terminated. Even in species that have a diapause, not all populations or all individuals in a population have the ability to enter diapause; for example, two-spotted spider mites in greenhouses often lose their genetic ability to enter diapause (through selection) and can reproduce all year around.
Mite-washing machines allow large amounts of foliage to be monitored (Leigh et al. 1984). To monitor eriophyoid mites that inhabit galls or buds, the mites must be dissected out (Lindquist et al. 1996). Eriophyoid mites in erinea (hairy patches on the foliage) may be gently heated so the eriophyoid mites walk out of the erinea to be sampled. A single human eyelash attached to a wooden applicator stick can be used to pick up these tiny mites. 3 Monitoring Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks When sampling dead vertebrates for parasitic mites or ticks, combing or brushing the body over a shallow white pan can produce samples that can be picked up more readily than if having to part fur or feathers.