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Air Conditioning Principles and Systems: An Energy Approach by Edward G. Pita P.E.

By Edward G. Pita P.E.

Utilizing at the least arithmetic, this publication explores the basic thoughts of air-con and their software to systems—explaining all innovations in a transparent, functional demeanour, and concentrating on difficulties and examples as a rule encountered at the activity. This e-book includes the newest and industry-wide permitted info on load calculations, layout info, gear info, and use of the web. particular bankruptcy themes hide the scope and makes use of of air-con; actual rules; heating lots; furnaces and boilers; hydronic piping structures and terminal devices; cooling load calculations; psychrometrics; fluid move in piping and ducts; piping, valves, ducts, and insulation; enthusiasts and air distribution units; centrifugal pumps, growth tanks, and venting; air con structures and gear; refrigeration structures and gear; automated controls; strength usage and conservation; instrumentation, trying out, and balancing; and making plans and designing the HVAC process; and sunlight heating and cooling structures. For consulting engineers, mechanical contractors, HVAC engineers, designers, venture managers, and amenities managers.

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Example text

It is not influenced by a different temperature–stress history, when the short time creep of concrete at elevated temperatures is calculated. 2 20 60 40 80 100 t (min) FIGURE 2-15 Short time creep of concrete under constant temperature and variable stress conditions[1-6]: (a) T = 500 °C; (b) T = 700 °C. CHAPTER 2 Deformation of Concrete at Elevated Temperature • The creep (ɛcr,1) that appears within the first time period (t = 0–t1) is calculated and the curve segment oa is obtained. • The creep increment within the second time period (t = t1–t2) is calculated as follows.

6, and T = 270–630 °C. • Other complicated paths (Fig. 3-6(c)) include the path of temperature and stress increasing proportionally (path P), multisteps increasing alternately (path S), and prestressing–unloading and heating–reloading (path M1, M2). All the experimental results are shown in Fig. 3-5 and fall between the curves of the upper and the lower bounds of the concrete strength at elevated temperatures. The compressive strength of concrete (fcuTσ ) under the path of prestressing–heating–loading (σ0–T–σ) is related to the value of the prestress (σ0) and is shown in Fig.

13) where ɛp is the peak strain at the corresponding temperature. The residual strain ɛs increases monotonically with the unloading strain ɛu, and also increases as the testing temperature (T, °C) increases. 15) the standardized curve, which starts from the point (1,1) and unloads at the point (0,0), is obtained. [1-6] (a) Unloading strain and residual strain; (b) theoretical unloading curves. CHAPTER 2 Deformation of Concrete at Elevated Temperature where n is a parameter. 5 when T ≥ 700 °C.  2-11(b).

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