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Alkali-activated cements and concretes by Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun

By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun

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Steel slag from EAF for the production of carbon steels is very similar to that from BOF. However, the slag from EAF for the production of alloy or stainless steels is quite different. It has a lower FeO content and a very high content of Cr, which leads to classifying the slag as a hazardous waste in US and Canada. Chemical composition of ladle slag is significantly different from that of steel furnace slag in that the former has a low FeO content. Some steelmaking operations use Al for further refining purposes.

Iron compounds present in those raw materials are reduced in furnaces to elemental iron, which combines with phosphorus to form a metallic by-product – ferrophosphorus. 5 Schematic illustration of phosphorus production (Barber 1975). Cementing components 43 ferrophosphorus forms. Thus, iron is undesirable in the furnace. Other metals present in those raw materials can also be reduced and the metals mix with the ferrophosphorus. Phosphate minerals always contain some impurities such as fluorapatite, phosphatized limestone, sand and clay.

Thus, the volume soundness of steel slag is mainly determined by the content of residual lime (Geiseler 1996). MgO in steel slag comes from dolomite, which is used as a flux, and MgO refractory, which is used as the lining of the steel furnace. A high content of MgO is often detected because refractory material comes into the slag, which also causes soundness problems of steel slag. 7 Relationship between residual lime, precipitated lime and total lime content in steel slag (Wachsmuth et al. 1980).

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