Archaeology

American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the by Gary Haynes

By Gary Haynes

The quantity includes summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties referring to the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of often huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the US. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has resulted in the recommendation that foraging people are guilty, even supposing significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of many of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; given that then loads of leading edge, fascinating new examine has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. diverse chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied via reviews of solid isotopes and anatomical/physiological features comparable to development increments in monstrous and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of courting how you can the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies referring to human looking of huge mammals.

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Fiedel, 2000, 2002). If the dates from New York are correct, the fungal decline may only indicate a local-scale shift of mastodont ranges in response to climate and vegetation changes caused by the onset of Bølling warming (12,500 BP, or 14,700 cal bp). The Arrival of Humans as a Possible Factor in the Extinctions S. , 2005 for an effective critique). There are undeniable similarities in the techniques of biface thinning used by Solutrean and Clovis toolmakers (although the Solutreans did not make fluted points).

University Press of Florida, Florida, pp 21–43 Fiedel SJ (2007) Quacks in the Ice: Waterfowl, Paleoindians, and the discovery of America. In: Walker RB, Driskell BN (eds) Foragers of the terminal Pleistocene in North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln/London, pp 1–14 Firestone RB, West A (2005) Evidence for the extinction of mammoths by an extraterrestrial impact event. Paper presented at Second International World of Elephants Congress, Sept. 22–25, Hot Springs, SD Firestone RB, West A, Kennett JP, Becker L, Bunch TE, Revay ZS, Schultz PH, Belgya T, Kennett DJ, Erlandson JM, Dickenson OJ, Goodyear AC, Harris RS, Howard GA, Kloosterman JB, Lechler S.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(19):10800–10805 CARD (Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database, compiled by R. Morlan). ca/accessed 6/04. Cinq-Mars J, Morlan RE (1999) Bluefish Caves and Old Crow Basin: A new rapport. In: Bonnichsen R, Turnmire KL (eds) Ice Age people of North America: Environments, origins, and adaptations. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, pp 200–212 Cione AL, Figini AJ, Tonni EP (2001). Did the megafauna range to 4300 BP in South America? Radiocarbon 43(1):69–75 Cione AL, Tonni EP, Soibelzon L (2003) The broken zig-zag: Late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extinction in South America.

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