By Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison
An creation to Radiation security is an obtainable account of the character of the dangers provided by way of ionizing radiation and the tools of defense, for these new to the sector and for the non-specialist.
This ebook takes the reader during the common heritage to the topic, the technical ideas underlying the keep an eye on of radiation dangers, the organic results of radiation, and radiation detection and size. those are via a attention of extra really good themes together with radiation safeguard in medication and within the nuclear strength undefined, radioactive waste administration and radiological emergencies
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Note that if r is doubled, r2 increases fourfold and ⌽ reduces by four times. This relationship is the inverse square law which will be dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 8. 5 m from a source which emits 2 ϫ 107 n/s. 4 ϫ 106 n / m2s. 1 TBq cobalt-60 source. 1 TBq ϭ 1011 dis/s, but for 60Co there are two ␥-photons per disintegration. 6 ϫ 1010 g photons /(m2s). 9 RELATIONSHIP OF UNITS The relationship of the units which have now been introduced is illustrated in Fig. 4. The gray describes an absorbed dose in any medium and the sievert expresses biological effect on the human body.
For example, they may result in: (a) the early death of the cell or the prevention or delay of cell division; or (b) a permanent modification which is passed on to daughter cells. The effects of radiation on the human body as a whole arise from damage to individual cells, but the two types of change have quite different results. In the first case, the death or prevention of division of cells results in the depletion of the cell population within organs of the body. Below a certain level of dose (a threshold), the proportion of cells damaged will not be sufficient to affect the function of the organ and there will be no observable effect on the organ or the body as a whole.
As a consequence, ␣ particles lose their energy very rapidly and only travel very short distances in dense media. Beta particles are very much smaller than ␣ particles and travel much faster. Therefore, they undergo fewer interactions per unit length of track and so give up their energy more slowly than ␣ particles. This means that ␤ particles travel further in dense media than ␣ particles. Gamma radiation loses its energy mainly by interacting with atomic electrons. It travels very large distances even in dense media and is very difficult to absorb completely.