Electromagnetism

Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction by Wolfgang Braun

By Wolfgang Braun

The e-book describes RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) used as a device for crystal development. New tools utilizing RHEED to represent surfaces and interfaces in the course of crystal progress by way of MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) are offered. distinct emphasis is wear RHEED depth oscillations, segregation phenomena, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and RHEED with rotating substrates.

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Extra resources for Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction During Crystal Growth

Example text

2b. Whenever more atoms are included in simulating either the NStzel or the Wassermeier structure, the pattern approaches the one shown in Fig. 3. The 46 4. Semikinematical Simulations of RHEED Patterns F i g . 2. Simulated RHEED patterns of (l13)A GaAs in the [332] azimuth (left) for the model by NStzel et al. (model A) and (right) the model by Wassermeier et al. (model B). In the bottom part of the figure, the scatterers are plotted at their positions in the surface unit cell. The sizes of the stars are proportional to their form factors.

Beats similar to those in Fig. 2 were observed experimentally [157], and their geometrical origin was demonstrated by adding a flux from a second cell installed at the opposite angle, after which the beating disappeared and the damping was reduced significantly [158]. RHEED oscillations can also be observed in the specular spot with rotating samples. If the rotation frequency is close to the RHEED oscillation frequency, Fourier techniques can be employed to separate the two components. Such experiments confirm the connection between damping and flux nonuniformity [159].

As Fig. 7 demonstrates, they are also present in homoepitaxy. Since the amplitude of the oscillations is small, this does not necessary mean that the surface lattice relaxes in the growth islands. It could also be due to variations in the background intensity, causing only an apparent shift of the peak positions. Summarizing the experimental results on the phase of RHEED oscillations, we are forced to conclude that a direct connection between surface roughness and RHEED intensity is insufficient to explain the observed phenomena.

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