By Vernon Newhouse (Eds.)
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The loop therefore appears to be open circuited as far as slowly varying applied fields are concerned. An emf Vo can be introduced into the resistive loop in at least two ways. One way is by the thermoelectric effect. A temperature difference of a degree or two across the device produces a thermal emf in the resistance which, depending on the material, may be as high as a microvolt or more, corresponding to a Josephson frequency of ^ 5 0 0 MHz. In many experiments by the authors a small temperature gradient across the device was usually present because of unintentional heat leaks in the cryostat, giving rise to Josephson oscillations at frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz.
Such phase reversals occur when the rf flux amplitude at the superconducting loop increases by |Φ 0 (Fig. 12, point G). The vertical separation of the plateaus in Vi, that is, the peak-to-peak variation of the response versus Φχ°, is given by the difference of Eqs. (63) and (57), δΫ1 = ^ωΦοίη/Μ (64) The height of the overshoot at the leading edge of each plateau is given by Eq. (62). We have assumed in Eq. (55) that M « (LLi)112, from which it follows that Δ8 « δΫι. Thus the overshoots are very small and are not shown in Fig.
Max coinciding with Φχ = &Φ0. min, which occurs when Φχ = (k + £)Φ0, depends on the ratio β = 2TTLIC/^Q as shown in Fig. 25. It is of note that Ie,min/h,m*x approaches zero as ic approaches zero. Thus a clear distinction exists with respect to the optical interferometer where the intensity varies as cos2 0. Nonzero interference minima are fundamental, regardless of the value of 1/2 0 1/2 ν/Φ 3/2 5 10 ß/Z--irUc/<$0 15 FIG. 25. Theoretical response of the critical current of a double-junction interferometer as a function of the field applied to the ring aperture, Φχ, and of the critical current of the two identical junctions, ic.