By Paul Seidel
This wide-ranging presentation of utilized superconductivity, from basics and fabrics correct as much as the main points of many functions, is a necessary reference for physicists and engineers in educational learn in addition to in undefined.
Readers searching for a complete review on easy results concerning superconductivity and superconducting fabrics will extend their wisdom and figuring out of either high and low Tc superconductors with admire to their software. expertise, instruction and characterization are coated for bulk, unmarried crystals, thins fi lms in addition to digital units, wires and tapes.
The major good thing about this paintings lies in its wide insurance of important functions in magnets, strength engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will locate details on superconducting magnets for various purposes like particle physics, fusion study, medication, and biomagnetism in addition to fabrics processing. SQUIDs and their utilization in drugs or geophysics are
thoroughly lined, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, facets on superconductor electronic electronics, major readers to quantum computing and new devices.
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Extra resources for Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications
The vanishing of the DC electric resistance below T c is not the only unusual property of superconductors. An externally applied magnetic ﬁeld can be expelled from the interior of superconductors except for a thin outer layer (“ideal diamagnetism” or “Meissner–Ochsenfeld eﬀect”). This happens for type-I superconductors for ﬁeld below the so-called critical ﬁeld Bc , and for type-II superconductors below the lower critical ﬁeld Bc1 . 07⋅10−15 Wb. The ideal diamagnetism of superconductors was discovered by Meissner and Ochsenfeld in 1933.
A) Starting position and (b) equilibrium position. 1 Superconductivity the ﬁeld is completely expelled from the interior of the superconductor except for a very thin layer at the sample surface. In this way, one obtains an ideal diamagnetic state, independent of the temporal sequence in which the magnetic ﬁeld was applied and the sample was cooled. This ideal diamagnetism has been discovered in 1933 by Meissner and Ochsenfeld  for rods made of lead or tin. 3 we have lowered the permanent magnet toward the superconducting lead bowl, generating in this way by induction the permanent currents.
Also one had measured the temperature dependence of the electric resistance of many metals, and it had been found that near room temperature the resistance decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. However, at low temperatures, this decrease was found to become weaker and weaker. In principle, there were three possibilities to be discussed: 1) The resistance could approach zero value with decreasing temperature (James Dewar, 1904). 2) It could approach a ﬁnite limiting value (Heinrich Friedrich Ludwig Matthiesen, 1864).