Toxicology

Arsenic: environmental chemistry, health threats and waste by Kevin Henke

By Kevin Henke

This publication offers an summary of the chemistry, geology, toxicology and environmental affects of arsenic, featuring info on particularly universal arsenic minerals and their key homes. additionally, it comprises discussions at the environmental affects of the discharge of arsenic from mining and coal combustion. 

even if the environmental rules of other international locations range and alter through the years, well known overseas, North American, and ecu guidance and laws on arsenic may be reviewed.

  • Includes details on contemporary environmental catastrophes (e.g. Bangladesh and China)
  • A thorough dialogue of the arsenic cycle, together with the cosmological starting place of arsenic
  • Includes Appendices supplying large word list and dimension conversion tables

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Sample text

5). Scorodite (FeAsO4 ·2H2 O) and amorphous Fe(III) arsenates often precipitate on the surfaces of oxidizing arsenopyrite or from aerated water that has been saturated with As(V) from the weathering and dissolution of arsenopyrite ((Foster, 2003), 40; Chapter 3; (Krause and Ettel, 1988), 851; (Williams, 2001), 273; (Craw, Falconer and Youngson, 2003), 73). The crystalline structure of scorodite is orthorhombic. Each arsenic atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms, which form four As-O-Fe(III) bridges.

Alacrinite (monoclinic, P 2/c space group) is chemically similar to α-realgar (monoclinic, P 21 /n space group). Its structure contains an equal amount of As4 S5 and As4 S4 . When compared with realgar, alacrinite is more stable at lower temperatures (Naumov, Makreski and Jovanovski, 2007). 5). The bright yellow color of orpiment and the scarlet-red color of realgar were once used as pigments and cosmetics in Egypt and Eurasia ((Nriagu, 2002), 4; Chapter 5). The monoclinic crystalline structure of orpiment consists of trigonal pyramids of AsS3 , which form layers.

As(C2 H5 )3 may also occur in landfill gases and probably natural gas (Bentley and Chasteen, 2002), 251. Further details on the reduction and methylation biochemistry of arsenic are discussed in Chapter 4. Demethylation refers to the removal of methyls from organoarsenicals, which may ultimately transform the organoarsenicals into inorganic arsenic. Although exposure to ultraviolet radiation may demethylate arsenic (Cullen and Reimer, 1989), 741, the role of microorganisms in demethylation is especially important.

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