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Artificial Oxygen Carrier: Its Front Line by K. Kobayashi, H. Horinouchi, M. Watanabe, Y. Izumi (auth.),

By K. Kobayashi, H. Horinouchi, M. Watanabe, Y. Izumi (auth.), Koichi Kobayashi M.D., Ph.D., Eishun Tsuchida Ph.D., Hirohisa Horinouchi M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)

This quantity of the Keio college overseas Symposia for all times Sciences and drugs includes the court cases of the thirteenth symposium held lower than the sponsorship of the Keio college clinical technology Fund. The fund was once est- lished via the beneficiant donation of the past due Dr. Mitsunada Sakaguchi. The Keio college overseas Symposia for all times Sciences and drugs represent one of many center actions subsidized via the fund,of which the target is to give a contribution to the overseas group via constructing human assets, selling scienti?c wisdom, and inspiring mutual trade. every year, the Committee of the overseas Symposia for all times Sciences and medication selects the main signi?cant symposium themes from functions got from the Keio clinical neighborhood. The booklet of the proce- ings is meant to publicize and distribute the knowledge bobbing up from the full of life discussions of the main intriguing and present concerns awarded in the course of the symposium. On behalf of the Committee, i'm such a lot thankful to the overdue Dr. Sakaguchi, who made the sequence of symposia attainable. we're additionally thankful to the well-known audio system for his or her contribution to this quantity. moreover, we want to recognize the ef?cient organizational paintings played via the contributors of this system committee and the workers of the fund. Naoki Aikawa, M. D. , D. M. Sc. , F. A. C. S.

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The structure of hemoglobin is conserved to a high degree throughout vertebrates, and similar O2 transport molecules are found even in nonvertebrates and plants. Myoglobin, similar to a single subunit of hemoglobin, is abundant in muscle, and its function has been ascribed to O2 storage: diving animals have a very large amount of this protein. Simple animals, such as protozoans, can obtain O2 from their environment by diffusion, because the distance between the environment and metabolic sites is short.

Other systems are also being developed to include antioxidant properties for those clinical applications that may have potential problems related to oxygen radicals. Other products in advanced stages of animal testing are based on hemoglobin-lipid vesicles, hemealbumin and heme-lipid vesicles. A further development is the use of nanotechnology and biodegradable copolymers to prepare nano-dimension artificial red blood cells containing hemoglobin and complex enzyme systems. Key words. Blood substitutes, Nanotechnology, Nanocapsules, Hemoglobin, Red blood cells, Polyhemoglobin Introduction Serious efforts to develop blood substitutes [1–5] for human use started only in the 1980s.

Artif Blood 9:2–5 (in Japanese) Red Blood Cell Substitutes: Past, Present, and Future Thomas Ming Swi Chang Summary. Polyhemoglobin is already well into the final stages of clinical trials in humans. One has been approved for routine clinical use in South Africa. Perfluorochemicals are chemical oxygen carriers that are being actively developed with some in the advanced stages of clinical trials. Meanwhile, new generations of modified Hb are being developed that can modulate the effects of nitric oxide.

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