Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of by Gideon Freudenthal

By Gideon Freudenthal

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1. difficulties and techniques of Analysis.- 2. technology and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s thought of house and the distance thought of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and method in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the idea of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute house; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. facts of the lifestyles of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. facts of the life of Empty Space.- five. the fundamental homes of a Particle in Empty area; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislation of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s basic Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ mistakes and the boundaries of the notion of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislations of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of effect, Elasticity, and the idea that of a cloth Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the proposal of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s idea of Gravity and house because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and procedure in glossy Philosophy.- IV. the idea that of point in seventeenth Century common Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the idea that of aspect within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the idea that of point in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among common and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social heritage of the Bourgeois inspiration of the Individual.- VIII. England prior to the Revolution.- 1. city, nation, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. useful and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and state nation within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s conception of the country as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the debate with Feudal thought and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. substitute Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of self sufficient vendors: Adam Smith.- 2. the straightforward Commodity creation of autonomous deepest owners: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an mixture of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as selecting the homes of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the basic houses of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and task as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; energetic and Passive Principle.- five. The procedure of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the country and on the earth System.- 6. approach of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and process within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- checklist of Abbreviations.- identify Index.

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CHAPTER II LEIBNIZ'S FOUNDATIONS OF DYNAMICS The analysis thus far has shown that 'absolute space' in Newton's theory refers not merely to an 'inertial frame of reference' but to a physical reality, which is also responsible - as a vacuum - for the 'density' of various materials and for the lack of resistance in regions distant from the earth. The presupposition of this theory has turned out to be the assumption that the material world is composed of equal particles whose essential properties belong to them independently of the existence of a world system.

Phil. 11,47). Leibniz's criticism of the laws of impact of Descartes is based on two principles: the principle of continuity and the principle of the equivalence of cause and effect. 21 "Datis ordinatis etiam quaesita sunt ordinata" - if the given (quantities) are ordered, then the quantities sought after are also (proportionally) ordered. From this it follows: if two instances (or data) approach each other continuously, so that one at last passes over into the other, it is necessary for their consequences or results (or what is sought) to do so also (Principe generate, GP III, 52; PPL, 351; cf.

This can be shown by comparing his argument on gravitation with his proof of the existence of absolute space. The existence of empty space independent of matter was supposed to be proven by the fact that at a height of even 200 miles the quantity of matter is infinitesimal in relation to the volume of space, without there being any change in the character of space. If all particles were evenly distributed throughout space, the relation of empty volume to filled would be 686 . 10 18 to 1. But matter is not evenly distributed throughout space; the relation of empty space to matter in the distant regions is thus even incomparably greater, and the attraction of two particles can for practical purposes be neglected.

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