By Stanley P. Cauvain
Water is the key contributor to the consuming and maintaining characteristics and constitution of baked items. Its administration and keep an eye on in the course of instruction, processing, baking, cooling and garage is vital for the optimisation of product caliber. This profitable and hugely functional quantity describes intimately the function and keep an eye on of water within the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry and biscuit doughs, their next processing and the baked product.
Now in a completely revised and up to date moment version, the ebook has been extended and built in the course of the inclusion of latest info and references on the topic of the formation and processing of batters and dough into baked items. the hot version features a number of case reviews in accordance with sensible adventure within the manufacture and optimisation of baked items. every one case examine, illustrated as acceptable, considers a few of the roles that water could play in several production contexts. The publication is aimed toward nutrition scientists and technologists in bakery businesses; element providers; flour millers; researchers and scholars in educational meals technological know-how departments.
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Extra info for Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects
The Role of Water in the Formation and Processing of Bread Doughs 43 It is inevitable that some (mainly small) variations occur in the water absorption capacity of flours, and it is these changes that millers and bakers seek to measure and predict. While the water absorption capacity of a flour may be the subject of a ‘fixed’ specification agreed between the miller and baker, it is worth noting that the ‘correct’ water absorption is the one that provides the baker with a standard dough consistency that can be processed readily, and that the water absorption capacity of flour is therefore not an expression of a fundamental property of wheat flours.
Krog and Larsen (1968) studied the phase diagram for mono- and diglycerides (the main components of GMS) in water and showed there were eight different forms, the most important of which for conferring batter stability are the lamellar and the alpha gel. In these forms, the GMS emulsion is able to confer stability to foams, such as cake batters (Cauvain and Cyster, 1996) and creams, and to complex with wheat starch to delay product staling (Kamel and Ponte, 1993). Water in bakery ingredients Water is a major constituent of foodstuffs and as such it is present to some extent in almost all the raw materials that are used in the manufacture of baked products (the exception being naturally occurring oils).
By moving the cover-slip on the microscope slide), the protein strands stretched. The rate of hydration of the protein strands 36 The Role of Water in the Formation and Processing of Bread Doughs depends on the ratio of water to protein and proceeds more rapidly when there is an excess of water. In breadmaking, the added water level does not usually exceed the flour weight and so it is unlikely that the features observed by Bernardin and Kasarda are the sole mechanisms by which protein and water come into contact with one another.