Geology

Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the by Stearns Morse

By Stearns Morse

A e-book on section diagrams in igneous petrology, with the early components of the chapters being straightforward and the later elements being complex. subject matters variety from simple platforms equivalent to Anorthite-Albite to extra complicated fabric akin to an advent to Schreinemakers' principles.

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Additional resources for Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology

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The cation norm, sometimes called the molecular norm, is calculated from oxides stated in terms of one cation. 5 Comparison of CIPW and Cation Norms, Gough Island Alkali Olivine Basalt of Barth (1962; Table III-9). 01 Other Types of Norm Calculation 19 than 62. Similarly, the oxygen norm is calculated from oxides states in terms of one oxygen. Thus N~O is divided by 62, but Si02 is divided by 30 rather than 60, to yield units of Sil/2 0. Further descriptioons are given in Appendix 1. , to distinguish them from the CIPW "ap", etc.

Suppose W = 2; the system is divariant, and two statements, one each about two of the variables P, T, X, are required to describe the system completely, and so on. 3) is one in which W = 0, and such a system with = c + 2 is invariant, a state which is very informative because for any particular set of phases, it is unique. The phase rule is thus a shorthand way of assessing the maximum number of intensive parameters which can change independently of each other without decreasing the number of coexisting phases in the system.

Many schemes have been used to obtain pure SiOz• One of the simplest, probably as good as any, is to crush and mill optical grade quartz crystal in steel, and remove the contaminating steel magnetically and with acid. This quartz contains fluid inclusions, and is not yet pure Si02 in its most reactive form, so one converts it to cristobalite by heating in a platinum crucible at 1500° C or higher for a number of hours (the tridymite/cristobalite transformation occurs at about 1470° C). Complete conversion to cristobalite is seldom achieved short of several days, as found by Yoder and Schairer in 1968 (verbal communication), but the material is probably adequate for most purposes after a few hours of heating.

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