Geology

Basic Methods of Structural Geology by Stephen Marshak, Gautum Mitra

By Stephen Marshak, Gautum Mitra

Entire insurance of the entire uncomplicated themes of structural geology.

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8m. The Trivoli Sandstone had an apparent conductivity in the range 3 X 10~8-4 X 10 ~8 m s ~l, but most of the sequence was too tight to accept water. 8m lower (at 21m) and directly in the Trivoli Sandstone. GT4 was stopped at 40 m at a high-angle fracture within limestone. 5 m. The only measurable water intakes in GT4 were in a deeper fractured shale-limestone interval and in the Trivoli Sandstone, which had an apparent conductivity in the range 1 X 10 -4 X 10~8 m s~J and erratic intake behaviour probably related to the filling of discrete fractures, another manifestation of the low porosity of the fractures and low permeability of the matrix.

It declined to about 34 m with the nearest approach (152 m) of Panel 3, then slightly recovered and then declined gradually as Panel 4 face approached. When the site was undermined the sandstone water level fell rapidly to about 43 m below ground, approximately the top of the lower bench aquifer. Potentiometric levels recovered very quickly to about 35 m during the compressive phase, then gradually to about 12 m below ground by 4 years after the end of mining (Fig. 7). The sandstone water level had thus demonstrated all the various responses of the conceptual model discussed earlier: transmitted drawdown due to adjacent and approaching mining; rapid decline in head due to increased fracture porosity during subsidence, with the aquifer becoming unconfined as a whole and threshold-unconfined for the lower bench; compressive partial recovery; and full long-term recharge recovery.

From Booth & Bertsch (1999). Reproduced with the permission of Springer-Verlag (Hydrogeological Journal 7, 561–575) (expect for the US public-domain components). Fig. 10. Change in major ions in Mt. Carmel Sandstone well P350, Jefferson County site. From Booth & Bertsch (1999). Reproduced with the permission of Springer-Verlag (Hydrogeological Journal 7, 561–575) (expect for the US public-domain components). EFFECTS OF LONGWALL COAL MINING ON AQUIFERS 33 Fig. 11. Map of the Saline County site, with inset showing instrumentation over Panel 5.

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