Biological Sciences

Beetles of Thailand by Pisuth Ek-Amnuay

By Pisuth Ek-Amnuay

The beetles, contributors of the Order Coleoptera are the biggest order of bugs, with approximately forty % of identified species of overall insect global or approximately 400,000 species. My first version of this e-book used to be released in 2002 and was once additionally the 1st publication of beetles on hand in Thailand. it is a revised variation, emphasizing the species content material and hazard of extra species for all these beetle households, this version comprises 509 species in comparison to the 1st variation which incorporated simply 362 species and subspecies.

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And a slightly expanded stipes . A and B are stadium VIII males , C is in stadium IX . The ocular fields in the drawings can be checked to ascertain this . See the text for an explanation of why these successive stages of maturity need not be present in successive stadia . 27 A first pair of legs normal rudiments of gonopods visible ventrally B ventral flange on stipes crochet; modified fi rst leg promerite of go no pod • r��ressed gonopods visible ventrally 28 Sex is distinguishable before the appearance of the first mature stadium ; in the males, one or both pairs of legs of the seventh ring are replaced by small gonopod rudiments and a gap is apparent where the eighth or the eighth and ninth legs should be (Fig .

The ability to push The push is delivered by the motive force of the legs ; the more legs , the bigger the push . The animals use a low gear gait ; the legs spend a greater part of the time on the ground propelling than off the ground recovering ; the two legs of a pair are always in the same phase . In the juliforms the push is delivered to the substrate by the collum which acts like the blade of a bulldozer. In the polydesmids and the craspedosomatids the push is delivered by the flat backs ; in these orders the head end of the body is narrower than the mid-trunk region ; the animal insinuates its head end into a crack and the flat backs then widen the crack rather like a mobile wedge .

This may exceed the generation time by the period survived by females after their first brood , to lay further annual broods . Time taken to reach maturity Most British millipedes lay their eggs in the spring or early summer. Chordeu­ matidans lay their eggs in early spring or even in the winter. Only a few small species achieve maturity in time to lay eggs in the year following that of their birth , for example , the chordeumatid Melogona scutellare (p . 94) and the small polydesmid , Brachydesmus superus (p.

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