By Anne Holmen
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Extra info for Bilingualism and the individual
London: Oxford University Press. Snow, C. (1986) Conversations with children. In P. Fletcher & M. Garman (eds), Language Acquisition. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. -B. (1984) Questions and Responses in English Conversation. Lund Studies in English, 68. Malmö: Liber Förlag. Tomasello, M. & Mannle, S. (1985) Pragmatics of sibling speech to one-year-olds. Child Development, 56, 911-7. Tyack, D. & Ingram, D. (1977) Children's production and comprehension of questions. Journal of Child Language, 4, 211-24.
Of these, four vary seemingly in the direction of monolinguals modifying their speech more. These variables are the following: 1. the number of full verbal groups/utterance, 2. the distribution of surface sentence types, 3. the number of attention-getting devices, 4. the number of vocatives, 5. use of non-immediate reference. The first two variables, however, differ significantly between monolingual and bilingual native talk (NT) as well as between monolingual and bilingual foreigner talk (FT).
E. (1977) Simplified registers, broken language, and pidginisation. In A. ), Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. : Indiana University Press. Fillmore, L. W. (1976) The Second Time Around: cognitive and social strategies in second language acquisition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. Foot, H. , Chapman, A. , Sweeney, C. A. & Gormly, C. M. R. (1979) Mixed-age effects in children's social encounters. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society in Nottingham, April 1979.