By R. E. Munn
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Biological cycles, originating in (a) a small cell unit (human pulse), (b) in an organism (activity of a finch), and (c) in a population (numbers of lynx in Canada), respectively (50). 7. Biological Clocks and Time Lags 41 ture chambers with continuous illumination or darkness, or with an unnatural environmental cycle of day and night, have been used to reveal some curious effects. In general, the phase can be shifted easily but the 24-hr biological periodicity is much more difficult to alter. Not only does a seedling "remember" its natural environment but, even if it has never known the real world, it maintains 24-hr rhythms of growth in a darkened room (51, p.
The latter can be expressed in any of the conventional units, but is normally given as electron volts (eV) or some multiple thereof such as kiloelectron volts (keV) or mega electron volts (MeV). 6 X 10~6 ergs. The effect of ionizing radiation on matter is related to the energy absorbed per unit mass—the absorbed dose—and is measured in rads. One rad is 100 ergs/g. For many purposes, it is more convenient to use the exposure. The unit is the roentgen (r). One roentgen is an exposure of X- or γ-radiation such that the associated corpuscular emission per cubic centimeter of air at normal temperature and pressure produces, in air, ions carrying one electrostatic unit of quantity of electricity of either sign.
Instead of concentration or temperature, the variable in this case is water deficiency, using as index the difference between precipitation and evaporation. An arbitrary threshold value is chosen, perhaps a zero water deficiency. Then the cumulative deficiency and the time between threshold crossings are variables that may be examined statistically. 5. CONCENTRATION AND FLUX The flux of a quantity is its rate of transfer through a medium. ) is usually expressed in grams per square centimeter per unit time.