Electromagnetism

Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, by Sergey V. Dorozhkin

By Sergey V. Dorozhkin

Due to a good chemical similarity with the organic calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates own outstanding biocompatibility and bioactivity. fabrics scientists use this estate widely to build man made bone grafts which are both completely made up of or purely surface-coated with the biologically correct calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made from calcium orthophosphates are very promising instruments for tissue engineering purposes. A entire evaluation of calcium orthophosphates, this e-book highlights their value and biomedical uses.

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Extra resources for Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine

Example text

OA has the hexagonal — space group symmetry P6 (174) of cesanite type [114], while the space group symmetry for partially dehydrated HA was found to — change from hexagonal P63/m to triclinic P 1 when more than ca. 35% of the structurally bound water had been removed [485]. OA has no stability field in aqueous conditions [488]; it is very reactive and transforms to HA in contact with water vapor [484]. Due to the aforementioned problems with OA preparation, no information on biomedical applications of pure OA is available.

ACP above), a LRO exists in CDHA. 8855(9) Å. 4% smaller, respectively, than those in HA [327]. A systematic study of defect constellations in CDHA is available in literature [328]. As a first approximation, CDHA may be considered as HA with some ions missing [329]. The more calcium is deficient, the more disorder and imperfections are in CDHA structure [330]. Furthermore, a direct correlation between Ca deficiency and the mechanical properties of the crystals was found: calcium deficiency leads to an 80% reduction in the hardness and elastic modulus and at least a 75% reduction in toughness in plate-shaped HA crystals [331].

11 FA (or FAp) Fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F, but is usually written as Ca10(PO4)6F2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules; the 29 30 Calcium Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates chemically correct name is pentacalcium fluoride tris(phosphate)) is the only ion-substituted calcium orthophosphate, considered in this review. 1). Perhaps, such “extreme” properties of FA are related to the specific position of F− ions in the center of Ca(2) triangles of the crystal structure [115].

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