By Ado Jorio, Gene Dresselhaus, Mildred S. Dresselhaus
The carbon nanotubes box has developed considerably because the book of the bestseller "Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, constitution, houses and Applications'. the current quantity builds at the everyday elements of the aforementioned ebook, which emphasizes the basics, with the hot quantity emphasizing parts that experience grown speedily because the first quantity, guiding destiny instructions the place examine is required and highlighting functions. the amount additionally comprises an emphasis on components like graphene, different carbon-like and different tube-like fabrics simply because those fields tend to impact and impression advancements in nanotubes within the subsequent five years.
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Additional info for Carbon Nanotubes: Advanced Topics in the Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications
A similar size dependence of the electronic gap was also predicted in the past for GaSe nanotubes. Many inorganic nanotubes investigated up to now are semiconductors or insulators and they show considerable dependence of the gap size on the tube diameter. This holds for hypothetical SiH– , GeH–  based nanotubes, hypothetical phosphorus tubes , Bi tubes , and many others. The diameter dependence of the gap size is in all cases nearly independent of the chirality of the nanotube. However, in many cases (MoS2 , BN, AlN, GaN), the zigzag nanotubes have a direct bandgap, whereas for the armchair nanotubes the gap is an indirect one.
The stability and the energetics of the layered structure Ga chalcogenides (GaS, GaSe) were studied by density-functional-based calculations . The calculated strain energies for these tubes are considerably larger than those of the transition-metal chalcogenides. The tendency to form layered materials is much less pronounced for the metal oxides than for the respective chalcogenides, due largely to their higher ionicity. Correspondingly, the ability to form tubular structures should be less pronounced for the oxides.
Contrary to noble-metal-alloyed nanotubes, the Nb-doped WS2 nanotubes did not show any extension of the interlayer distance . , of NbS2 . The crystallinity can be improved by additional annealing of the tubes, for example, or by increased in-situ temperature during the growth (see Fig. 6). Although the defects are a kind of relaxation and stabilization of the real system, they increase the free energy with regard to the perfect structure. Structures produced by gas-phase synthesis are more likely to be in equilibrium than those produced by diﬀusional transformations.